Glossary

Select a term below to learn more:


Advanced prostate cancer
Advanced prostate cancer is prostate cancer that has recurred following surgery and/or radiation therapy.
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Androgen
Androgens are male hormones, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.
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Androgen deprivation therapy
Androgen deprivation therapies are hormonal treatments that are frequently used in men with advanced prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapies are intended to reduce testosterone levels to those that are similar to the levels found in men who have been surgically castrated.
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Androgen receptor
The androgen receptor is a protein found in prostate cells that are activated by the binding of an androgen to it. The binding of an androgen to the androgen receptor is known as the androgen receptor signaling pathway. The growth and survival of prostate cancer tumors rely primarily on the functioning of the androgen receptor signaling pathway.
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Androgen receptor degradation
Degradation of the androgen receptor reduces the amount of androgen receptor protein in prostate cancer tumor cells. It is one of the three ways that galeterone disrupts the activation of the androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer tumor cells.
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Androgen receptor inhibition
Androgen receptor inhibition is a process by which the binding of an androgen with the androgen receptor is blocked. Androgen receptor inhibition is one of the three ways that galeterone disrupts the activation of the androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer tumor cells.
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AR-V7 splice variant
Androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) is a truncated form of the androgen receptor that has been associated with non-response to commonly used oral therapies for metastatic CRPC.
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ARDA
ARDA stands for Androgen Receptor Degradation Agents. Tokai had a drug discovery program focused on the identification and evaluation of novel compounds specifically designed to disrupt androgen receptor signaling through enhanced androgen receptor degradation. Assessment of future ARDA plans are underway at this time.
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Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)
Castration-resistant prostate cancer is advanced prostate cancer that has recurred following androgen deprivation therapy.
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CYP17 enzyme inhibition
CYP17 is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of androgens. The inhibition of the CYP17 enzyme blocks the synthesis of testosterone. CYP17 enzyme inhibition is one of the three ways that galeterone disrupts the activation of the androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer tumor cells.
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Galeterone
Galeterone, the first Androgen Receptor Degrader in clinical testing, was Tokai’s lead product candidate. Galeterone is a highly-selective, oral molecule that disrupts the androgen receptor signaling pathway in three ways: androgen receptor degradation, CYP17 enzyme inhibition and androgen receptor inhibition.
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Metastasis
Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells to areas of the body beyond the organ of original occurrence.
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Prostate
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. It makes the seminal fluid that carries sperm out of the body as part of semen.
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Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is the uncontrolled spread of abnormal cells of the prostate. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men, other than skin cancer, in the United States. When detected in its early stages, prostate cancer is curable in a majority of men. In some cases, however, prostate cancer recurs and therapeutic intervention is required. The growth and survival of prostate cancer tumors rely primarily on the functioning of the androgen receptor signaling pathway.
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